jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010

Presente Perfecto

Presente Perfecto


FORMA

[has/have + pasado participio]

Ejemplos:

  • You have seen that movie many times.
  • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • You have not seen that movie many times.

USO 1 Tiempo sin especificar antes de ahora

Podemos usar el Presente Perfecto para decir que una acción paso en un tiempo no especifico antes de ahora. El tiempo exacto no es importante. NO Puedes usar el Presente Perfecto con expresiones de tiempo especifico como: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. POdemos usar el Presente Perfecto con expresiones no especificas: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Ejemplos:

  • I have seen that movie twenty times.
  • I think I have met him once before.
  • There have been many earthquakes in California.
  • People have traveled to the Moon.
  • People have not traveled to Mars.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?

    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

¿Como usamos en realidad el Presente Perfecto?

El concepto de "tempo no especifico" puede ser muy confiso para aprender inglés. Es mejor asociar el presente perfecto con los siguientes temas:

TOPIC 1 Experience TEMA 1

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Puedes usar el Presente Perfecto para describir tu experiencia. Es como decir "I have the experiencei of..." Tambien puedes usar estos tiempos para decir que nunca has tenido una experiencia similar. El Presente Perfecto no es usado para descubrir un evento especifico

Ejemplos:

  • I have been to France.

    En este caso habla de que has tenido la experiencia de estar en Francia
  • I have been to France three times.

    Puedes agregar el numero de veces al final de la oración
  • I have never been to France.

    En este caso nos quiere decir que no tienes la experiencia de haber ido a Francía
  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • He has never traveled by train.
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages.
  • A: Have you ever met him?

    B: No, I have not met him.

TEMA 2 Cambio atravez del tiempo

Usualmente usamos el Presente Perfecto para hablar hacerca del cambio que ha habido en un periodo de tiempo

Ejemplo:

  • You have grown since the last time I saw you.
  • The government has become more interested in arts education.
  • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TEMA 3 Logros

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time. Usualmente usamos el PResente Perfecto para alistar los logros individuales y humanos

Ejemplos:

  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
  • Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting TEMA 4 Una acción incompleta que estamos expermentando

Usualmente usamos el Presente Perfecto para decir que una acción que esperamos, no ha pasado. Usando el presente perfecto sugiere que aún estamos esperando a que la acción ocurra.

Ejemplos:

  • James has not finished his homework yet.
  • Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
  • Bill has still not arrived.
  • The rain hasn't stopped.

TEMA 5 Acciones multiples en diferentes tiempos

También usamos el Presente Perfecto para hablar de diferentes acciones que han ocurrido en el pasado en diferentes tiempos. El Presente Perfecto sugiere que el proceso no esta completado y mas acciónes son posibles

Ejemplos:

  • The army has attacked that city five times.
  • I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
  • We have had many major problems while working on this project.
  • She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Expresiones de tiempo con Presente Perfecto

Cuando estamos usando el Presente Perfecto significa que algo ha pasado en algun punto anterior de nuestras vidas. Recuerda, el tiempo exacto de la acción que pasa es importante.

Algunas veces queremos limitar el tiempo en el que estamos buscando para una experiencia. POdemos hacer esto con expresiones como: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.

Ejemplos:

  • Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
  • I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
  • They have had three tests in the last week.
  • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
  • My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTA

"Last year" y "in the last year" Tienen significado diferente. "Last year" significa el año anterior a este, y es considerado un tiempo especifico que requiere el Pasado Simple. "In the last year" Significa 365 días antes de ahora. No es considerado un tiempo especifico así que requiere Presente Perfecto.

Ejemplos

  • I went to Mexico last year.

    Fui a México en el calendario del año pasado a este
  • I have been to Mexico in the last year.

    He estado en México por lo menos en algún punto en 365 días antes de ahora

USO 2 Duración del pasado hasta ahora (Verbos no continuos)

Con Verbos No Continuos y con los usos No Continuos de los verbos Mixtos, usamos el Presente Perfecto para demostrar que algo que comenzo en el pasado y ha continuado hasta ahora. "for Five Minutes", "for two weeks" y "desde el jueves" pueden ser usadas todas con Presente Perfecto

Ejemplos:

  • I have had a cold for two weeks.
  • She has been in England for six months.
  • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

Aunque en lo anterior del uso del Presente Perfecto es normalmente limitado por los verbos No Continuos y los usos No Continuos de los verbos Mixtos, las palabras "live", "work", "teach" y "study" son algunas veces usados de esta manera aunque no sean verbos No-Continuos

UBICACION DE LOS ADVERBIOS

Los ejemplos siguientes nos muestran la ubicación gramatical de los adverbios como: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Ejemplos:

  • You have only seen that movie one time.
  • Have you only seen that movie one time?

ACTIVO / PASIVO

Ejemplos:

  • Many tourists have visited that castle. Activo
  • That castle has been visited by many tourists. Pasivo

Ejercicios de Presente Perfecto

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